PT. PAM Alam Mineral
Manganese Mining
Jl Batu Jajar no 37
Jakarta, 10120 Indonesia
Phone: 021-3453888
Fax: 021-34832738

Site Location: Trenggalek, Tulung Agung, East Java

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Manganese

Manganese is found as free element in its basic character and often mixed with iron, like other minerals. As free element, manganese ia an important metal in its use with other industrial metal, mainly in stainless steel.

Manganese phosphate often used as treatment in rust and corrosion prevention in steel. Ion in manganese possess a variety of color, depending on their oxidation state, and often used as color substance in industry. Permanganates from sodium, potassium and barium are oxidation for fuel that is very powerful. Manganese dioxide is used as electron acceptor material in standard and alkaline disposable dry cells and batteries.

Manganese ions function as associate factors for a number of enzymes in higher organisms, where they are vital in detox of superoxide free radicals. The element is a necessary trace mineral for all published and noted existing organisms. In large quantity , and apparently with activities such as penghirupan, manganese can cause poison syndrome in mammals, with neurological malfunctions which is sometimes unreversible.

Physical Form

Mangamese has the color of white-gray, it's a metal element, and appear like iron. Manganese is lustrous metallic to submetallic, with hardness 2 - 6, weight type 4,8, reniform, massif, botryoidal, stalactite and sometimes has radial structure and fibrous. Mangan is a hard metal and very brittle, fusible even though difficult, but effortlessly oxidized. Manganese metal and its ordinary ions is paramagnetic.

Production

The most important ore in manganese is pyrolusite (MnO2). Most of the manganese ore that is equally important economically has imminent spatial relation to iron ores. Land-based reserves are abundant but irregularly spread unevenly, and can be found at South Africa, Ukraine, and other valuable manganese supply are located in Australia, China, India, Brazil and Gabon.

For Ferromanganese production, manganese ore are mixed with iron ore and carbon, then condensed either in a blast furnace or in an electric arc furnace. The Ferromanganese result then has 30% to 80% manganese content. Pure manganese that's often used for blend production that isn't iron is produced by leaching manganese iron with sulfuric acid which followed by with electrowinning process.

manganese production in all of Indonesia does not reach 10% total manganese production worldwide. But, the potential of manganese allocationin Indonesia is comparatively large, in widespread locations in entire of Indonesia. The supply potentials can be found in Java Island, Sumatera Island, Riau Islands, Kalimantan Island, Sulawesi Island, Nusa Tenggara, Maluku and Papua. Meanwhile, mining of PT. PAM Alam Mineral itself is located in Trenggalek, Tulung Agung of East Java.

Usage

Steel

Manganese is needed for iron and steel production because of its sulfur-fixing, deoxidizing, and intermix properties. Steel making, including its ironmaking component, is accounted for the largest demands, which currently in range for about 85% to 90% of total demands. From a variety of its usage, manganese is key component of low-cost stainless steel formation.

Small quantity from manganese improve the possibility of steel to work at hight temperature, because forming a high melting sulfide, then preventing iron sulfide from liquidizing at grain boundaries. If the manganese content reach 4%, the embrittlement process becomes the principal feature. The embrittlement pocess decreases at higher manganese convergence and reaches a satisfactory level at 8%. The fact that steel has 8% 15% content is cold thickening and can acquire a high tensile physical stamina of up to 863  MPa, steel with 12% manganese was used for the British steel helmets. This steel composition was frirst founded in year 1882 by Robert Hadfield, which now is still known as Hadfield steel.

Aluminium Fusion

The largest second consumption for manganese is as mixture agent for aluminium. Aluminium with manganese content of about 1,5% has higher resistance against rust and corrosion that's caused by formation grains consuming impurities which would contribute to galvanic corrosion. The corrosion defiant aluminium combination 3004 and 3104 with a manganese content of 0.8 to 1.5 % are the mixture used for most of the beverage cans. For the years up to 2000, more than 1,6 million metric tons have been used for those alloys, with 1% manganese content, this quantity require 16,000 metric manganese tons.

Other Utilization

  • Large quantity from manganese dioxide is produces as depolarizer in Zinc-carbon battery and the alkaline battery. In year 2002, more than 230,000 tons of manganese dioxide are used for this intention. The Manganese dioxide is decreased to the manganese oxide-hydroxide MnO(OH) during discharging, keeping the establishment of hydrogen from happening at the anode of the battery.
  • This metal is rarely used as coin, but country such as United States of America at one time have used the manganese metal as nickel during wartime in the years 1942-1945. But because of lack of resources during the war, the nickel alloys (75% copper and 25% nickel) used to make the nickel before, have been displace with less grave silver metal and manganese (56% copper, 35% silver and 9% manganese). Since the year 2000 dollar coins, such as the Sacagawea dollar and Presidential $1 coin, are made from a brass consisting 7% of manganese with a genuine copper core.
  • Manganese mixture have been used as pigments and in coloring of ceramics and glasses for a long time, and the brown color from ceramics sometimes are still based from manganese mixtures. In the glass industry, two effects from manganese compouns are still in use. Manganese reats with iron. This reaction cause the color of strong green in glass with the formation of iron with little color and small amount of pink color of manganese, altering the leftover from the iron coloring. Larger quantity from manganase are used to generate pink colored glass.

Avoidance

Manganese compounds does not contain as much toxic as in other metals such as nickel and copper. But, unfolding to dusts and manganese fume should not exceed ceiling value of 5 mg/m3 even for short periods of time because of its toxican level. Manganese gives particular risk to children due to its inclination to attach to CH-7 receptors. Manganese poisoning has been associated to damaged motor skills and cognitive mental confusion.

The permanganate presents a higher poison level than the manganese compounds. Assorted lethal intoxications have happened, although the fatal dose is around 10 g. The powerful oxidative effect can result in necrosis of the mucous membrane. For instance, the esophagus is affected if the permanganate is consumed. Only a small amount is consumed by the intestines but this small quantity shows the harsh impacts on the kidneys and on the liver.

In the year 2005, a study suggests on a link between manganese inhalation and central nervous system poisoning in rats. It is hypothesized that constant disclosure to the naturally appearing manganese in bath water puts millions of citizens at risks.

A type of neurodegeneration very much similar to Parkinson's Disease named "manganism" has been associated to manganese hazards amongst miners, diggers and smelters following the early 19th Century. Accusations of inhalation-induced manganism have been made concerning the melding industry. Danger to Manganese exposure in developed countries are regulated by their Workers Safety or Health Administration.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Manganese Mining