Manganese is found as free element in
its basic character and often mixed with iron, like other minerals. As
free element, manganese ia an important metal in its use with other industrial
metal, mainly in stainless steel.
Manganese phosphate often used as treatment
in rust and corrosion prevention in steel. Ion in manganese possess a
variety of color, depending on their oxidation state, and often used
as color substance in industry. Permanganates from sodium, potassium
and barium are oxidation for fuel that is very powerful. Manganese dioxide
is used as electron acceptor material in standard and alkaline disposable
dry cells and batteries.
Manganese ions function as associate
factors for a number of enzymes in higher organisms, where they are vital
in detox of superoxide free radicals. The element is a necessary
trace mineral for all published and noted existing organisms. In large
quantity , and apparently with activities such as penghirupan, manganese
can cause poison syndrome in mammals, with neurological malfunctions
which is sometimes unreversible.
Mangamese has the color of white-gray,
it's a metal element, and appear like iron. Manganese is
lustrous metallic to submetallic, with hardness 2 - 6, weight type 4,8,
reniform, massif, botryoidal, stalactite
and sometimes has radial structure and fibrous. Mangan is a hard metal
and very brittle, fusible even though difficult, but effortlessly oxidized.
Manganese metal and its ordinary ions is paramagnetic.
The most important ore in manganese is pyrolusite
(MnO2). Most of the manganese ore that is equally important
economically has imminent spatial relation to iron ores. Land-based reserves are
abundant but irregularly spread unevenly, and can be found at South Africa,
Ukraine, and other valuable manganese supply are located in Australia,
China, India, Brazil and Gabon.
For Ferromanganese production, manganese ore are mixed
with iron ore and carbon, then condensed either
in a blast furnace or in an electric arc furnace. The
Ferromanganese result then has 30% to 80% manganese content. Pure manganese
that's often used for blend production that isn't iron is produced by
leaching manganese iron with sulfuric acid which followed by
manganese production in all of Indonesia does not reach
10% total manganese production worldwide. But, the potential of manganese
allocationin Indonesia is comparatively large, in widespread locations
in entire of Indonesia. The supply potentials can be found in Java Island,
Sumatera Island, Riau Islands, Kalimantan Island, Sulawesi Island, Nusa
Tenggara, Maluku and Papua. Meanwhile, mining of PT. PAM Alam Mineral
itself is located in Trenggalek, Tulung Agung of East Java.
Manganese is needed for iron and steel production because
of its sulfur-fixing, deoxidizing, and intermix properties.
Steel making, including its ironmaking component, is accounted for the
largest demands, which currently in range for about 85% to 90% of total
demands. From a variety of its usage, manganese is key component
of low-cost stainless steel formation.
Small quantity from manganese improve the possibility
of steel to work at hight temperature, because forming a high melting
sulfide, then preventing iron sulfide from liquidizing at grain boundaries.
If the manganese content reach 4%, the embrittlement process becomes
the principal feature. The embrittlement pocess decreases at higher manganese
convergence and reaches a satisfactory level at 8%. The fact that steel
has 8% 15% content is cold thickening and can acquire a high tensile
physical stamina of up to 863 MPa, steel with 12%
manganese was used for the British steel helmets. This steel composition
was frirst founded in year 1882 by Robert Hadfield, which now is still
known as Hadfield steel.
The largest second consumption for manganese is as mixture
agent for aluminium. Aluminium with manganese content of about 1,5% has
higher resistance against rust and corrosion that's caused by formation
grains consuming impurities which would contribute to galvanic corrosion.
The corrosion defiant aluminium combination 3004 and 3104 with a manganese
content of 0.8 to 1.5 % are the mixture used for most of the beverage
cans. For the years up to 2000, more than 1,6 million metric tons have
been used for those alloys, with 1% manganese content, this quantity
require 16,000 metric manganese tons.
Large quantity from manganese dioxide is produces
as depolarizer in Zinc-carbon battery and the
alkaline battery. In year 2002, more than 230,000 tons of manganese
dioxide are used for this intention. The Manganese dioxide is decreased to the manganese oxide-hydroxide MnO(OH) during discharging,
keeping the establishment of hydrogen from happening at the anode of
This metal is rarely used as coin, but country such
as United States of America at one time have used the manganese metal
as nickel during wartime in the years 1942-1945. But because of lack
of resources during the war, the nickel alloys (75% copper and 25%
nickel) used to make the nickel before, have been displace with less
grave silver metal and manganese (56% copper, 35% silver and 9% manganese).
Since the year 2000 dollar coins, such as the Sacagawea dollar and
Presidential $1 coin, are made from a brass consisting 7% of manganese
with a genuine copper core.
Manganese mixture have been used as pigments and in
coloring of ceramics and glasses for a long time, and the brown color
from ceramics sometimes are still based from manganese mixtures. In
the glass industry, two effects from manganese compouns are still in
use. Manganese reats with iron. This reaction cause the color of strong
green in glass with the formation of iron with little color and small
amount of pink color of manganese, altering the leftover from the iron
coloring. Larger quantity from manganase are used to generate pink
Manganese compounds does not contain as much toxic as
in other metals such as nickel and copper. But, unfolding to dusts and
manganese fume should not exceed ceiling value of 5 mg/m3 even
for short periods of time because of its toxican level. Manganese gives
particular risk to children due to its inclination to attach to CH-7
receptors. Manganese poisoning has been associated to damaged
motor skills and cognitive mental confusion.
The permanganate presents a higher poison level than
the manganese compounds. Assorted lethal intoxications have happened, although
the fatal dose is around 10 g. The powerful
oxidative effect can result in necrosis of the mucous membrane. For
instance, the esophagus is affected if the permanganate is consumed. Only
a small amount
is consumed by the intestines but this small quantity shows
the harsh impacts on the kidneys and on the liver.
In the year 2005, a study suggests on a link between
manganese inhalation and central nervous system poisoning in rats. It
is hypothesized that constant disclosure to the naturally appearing manganese
in bath water puts millions of citizens at risks.
A type of neurodegeneration very much similar
to Parkinson's Disease named "manganism" has been associated to
manganese hazards amongst miners, diggers and smelters following the
early 19th Century. Accusations of
inhalation-induced manganism have been made concerning the melding industry.
Danger to Manganese exposure in developed countries are regulated by
their Workers Safety or Health Administration.
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